Hate-Crime Victimization and Fear of Hate Crime Among Racially Visible People in Canada: The Role of Income as a Mediating Factor


Hate-crime victimization against racially visible people is of growing concern and it raises questions about social cohesion in a multiracial and ethnic democracy such as Canada, particularly among immigrants across the country. Using income as a mediating factor, this article examines hate-crime victimization against visible minority groups in Canada using the Ethnic Diversity Survey. Using multinomial and binary logistic regression, the study describes the likelihood of experiencing hate crime victimization and fear of hate crime. The results indicate that hate crime and fear of hate crime depends on visible minorities’ ethnic background, above and beyond their socioeconomic status.

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Environmental Assessment Through Comprehensive Studies and Review Panel Process Options Under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act: A Comparative Review of Public Influence in the EA Process

Public participation is a central objective of environmental assessment process and a means by which the concerns and interests of the public are considered before a project proceeds. However, there have always been concerns as to the real influence of the public in the environmental assessment process. Using a qualitative comparative case study approach, this study considered two types of assessment established in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, comprehensive studies and review panels, to understand which of the two process options results in more meaningful consideration of intervenor concerns. The results indicate that though proponents were responsive to intervenor comments during comprehensive studies, panel reviews resulted in more uptake of intervenor concerns. On the issue of which process option provided more opportunities for public participation, the findings suggest that there were no significant differences between the two options because the entry points for public participation were similar.

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